Explaining The Muslim Brotherhood Electoral Success In Egypt

Explaining The Muslim Brotherhood Electoral Success In Egypt

From the 1980s through the presidential and parliamentary elections in 2012 and 2011. The Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt out-performed secular opposition movements at the same period. There are a variety of explanations for this according to scholars.

who claim it’s due to factors like the Brotherhood’s superior organization strength or the special ability of Islam. However, there are many theories that are not unified and don’t include other important aspects. Which means that one has to take a close look at these theories to decide which are the most credible.

Most convincing evidence in support of the success of the Muslim Brotherhood have to divided into two parts. The success they had in parliament elections under Mubarak as well as the elections that followed the removal of Mubarak in 2011. 

Regarding the elections under Mubarak, I argue that the Brotherhood’s emphasis of the middle classes. Their policies of the state, as well as the mistakes made by the secular opposition significantly helped. The Brotherhood to win more votes than other opposition parties during the Mubarak period. 

Brotherhood Emphasis

In the election of 2011 as well as 2012, the Brotherhood’s emphasis upon economic issues. The indecipherable platform, their wide range of members. And their religious networks enabled them to achieve massive wins.

The first main focus of the article shall be the Muslim Brotherhood’s successes in their time. During the Mubarak Era and the various theories that surround the phenomenon. The primary theory that discussed one that suggests the success. Of the Muslim Brotherhood stems due to economic deprivation. It believed it is that the Muslim Brotherhood provided services to those in need. Who then backed the Brotherhood and provided them with the votes needed to achieve their goals.

But this argument is problematic due to a number of reasons. First, the security forces did not permit the Brotherhood to offer social services to the needy consistently. And frequently intervened to enforce strict laws5. Even though the Brotherhood continued to insist on helping the poor. With services such as providing blankets to families in need.

However, it was not able to result in votes, since very few who benefited. From their services for social purposes were actually able to vote for them. In addition, the Brotherhood was competing with the government in the provision of social service. Mubarak’s government had a huge patronage system that was in place that frequently facilitated those. Who were poor to vote for Egyptian ruling party that is the NDP.

Special Characteristic Brotherhood

Another argument that has to addressed the special characteristic of Islam. And the fact that Muslims obligated to establish an Islamic government that is based on Sharia. But, when using this argument, it doesn’t explain why although a lot of Muslims are believers in Sharia however. They tend to choose to vote for other parties. 

Another argument can be that Brotherhood or Islamist groups generally better organized than secular organizations and therefore more efficient. This is a tricky issue because Islamist groups don’t have one model. Of organizational convergence This makes such a broad claim problematic.

In addition, in his research Counting Islam, researcher Tarek Masoud examines the idea. That Islamist organizations better organized than groups of left. In testing their organization using the use of a quantitative research model Masoud. Found that leftist organizations were as well-organized as Islamists. 

Another theory suggests that this is due to repression from government officials under the Mubarak regime against leftists. But the Brotherhood was often the victim of repression, too. Their influence often reduced through the Mubarak regime. That was concerned with the rising popularity of the Brotherhood beginning in the 1980s and continuing until the year 15. But these efforts produced mixed results, since the Brotherhood kept some of social networks throughout the period.

Different Brotherhood Theories

In keeping these different theories in your mind, there are other theories that seem more plausible, one of which is the relaxation of the restrictions on Islamists during the 1980s by Mubarak. Following the murder by Anwar Sadat back in 1981 Hosni Mubarak wanted to attain stability in Egypt and therefore he sought to allow conservative Islamist groups. 

Furthermore, as a result of the recent peace accord with Israel, Mubarak had to develop connections with West since he had a rift with from the rest of the Arab States and the Soviet Union, He decided to establish relations through an only democratizing the country in a limited way.

Mubarak allowed Brotherhood Members to returned to the country after exile, loosening laws on professional syndicates and also allowed the Brotherhood to join forces in the Wafd party to a candidate for the elections to parliament. Furthermore, the state generally welcomed the Brotherhood’s beliefs but only when it was not in politics. 

This was becoming more lenient in the 1990s and 2000s as the Mubarak regime began to crack down on the Brotherhood and attempted to limit their participation during elections. Mubarak took this action because he worried that the Brotherhood could challenge his authority. But this brief time of conciliation was a great help to the Brotherhood create the seeds of their influence, as evident in the relatively liberal 2005 elections to the parliamentary, in which the Brotherhood’s candidate, who ran as an independent were extremely successful.

Brotherhood Focus

In addition, the Brotherhood’s focus on the middle class educated significantly helped them gain their support. The middle class with a high education is a powerful class due to its prosperity. Although the middle class isn’t being wealthy however, they have enough money to be able to make vote based on their ideology. 

The ruling class was able to gain support through support from the poor, however this doesn’t influence the middle class as readily because of their wealth. The middle class is also insufficiently wealthy to be a beneficiary of the corruption of the regime, making them less likely to support the current regime. The Brotherhood was able to get their supporters in a variety of ways. 

They first worked to provide social services to people in middle-class households. This included making sure that they get government assistance like scholarships, and also giving programs on how to fill out tax forms.

They also were focused on the university campuses as well as professional syndicates. For campus universities, they provided incentives for students through the provision of low-cost books and study groups, and also ran candidates through student unions. In addition, students were encouraged to join due to the Brotherhood’s complete control over several professional syndicates. 

Active In Syndicates

The members from the Brotherhood who were interested in getting active in syndicates were members of the middle group of Brotherhood and were also students themselves. The members, after being elected, addressed issues like financial corruption and corruption in the syndicates, impressing members and creating the perception that portrayed the Brotherhood as a clean and accountable organization. 

This proved to be highly beneficial for those in the middle. They Brotherhood had a higher probability to win in areas with higher incomes and, in these wealthy areas, they performed better than other regions. Finally, other opposition groups have had difficulty gaining significant support from citizens provided an organization called the Muslim Brotherhood a great advantage in the elections. 

One of the most prominent opposing groups within Egypt was leftist political parties, however, their insufficiency was due to a range of reasons. For one, many leftist groups depend on unions to support them, but due to the agrarian nature of Egypt’s population, the influence of these organizations was not that high, and they were frequently controlled by the state. 

A second aspect of the leftist political platform in Egypt is the distribution of wealth and a strong welfare state. But, due to the huge patronage of the state system, many who would be drawn to the leftist platform decided instead to support the state. These factors, in addition to others, significantly harmed left-wing groups and allowed the Brotherhood to be able to assume its position as the main opponent to Mubarak.

Presidential And Parliamentary Elections Brotherhood

Following the demise of Mubarak in 2011 there were presidential and parliamentary elections in which the Brotherhood gained a majority of seats in the parliament. In addition, the voters chose Mohamed Morsi to be the president of Egypt. There was plenty of speculation about the reason for this as many were based on the same theories utilized in the Mubarak period.

Like more organization and the possibility of an Islamic advantage. However, these theories are again afflicted by similar issues, with some variations. Concerning the targeting of those who are poor, the argument was more convincing after the demise from power of Mubarak. Mubarak regime.

This is due to the fall of the Mubarak regime the vote-buying establishment was dismantled, which gave all parties the chance to gain a crucial voting bloc. It is true that the Muslim Brotherhood did indeed take advantage of this opportunity and did it with the focus on economics that will come up in the future and also its use of patronage. 

They also offered Muslim Brotherhood provided small items like cooking oil and provided discounted food on Election Day and offered school classes to show their dedication to those who support the Brotherhood and to convince people to support them in the vote. However, it was not the only way to guarantee the Brotherhood victory.

Brotherhood On Economics

The focus of the Brotherhood on economics was the primary reason behind the growth that was the Brotherhood. The majority of Egyptians believed that economics was the main concern of their lives, and the Brotherhood took advantage of this by making the economy, and not Islam as such, the central goal in their election campaign. Egyptians were interested in a variety of aspects of the economy, like Distribution of Wealth and Ending Corruption, such as the need for connections to obtain the highest paying job.

The Brotherhood were extremely vague on their economic policy that led to disorientation among their voters. The majority of voters thought that the Brotherhood were a proponent of wealth distribution36, however actually, they were capitalists for free markets who emphasized the need for some regulations from the government. 

This perception among the public contributed to the Brotherhood among the less wealthy and further bolstered their support base. In the event that the Brotherhood was unable to implement their alleged platform, voters were able to vote against the Brotherhood. In the wake from this fact, the percentage of votes cast for Brotherhood candidates dramatically decreased following 2011’s Parliamentary Elections of 2011.

Brotherhood Popularity

The Brotherhood gained popularity because of their ambiguous platform. The Brotherhood frequently claimed that Islam is the answer to the nation’s issues however, they didn’t explain how or according to which interpretation. This unclear interpretation of Islam appealed to a lot of people because one could easily superimpose.

Their understanding on Islam as the means by which they believed the Muslim Brotherhood would achieve their goals. Additionally, the various groups within that Brotherhood were a factor in the confusion of their ideology. Within the Brotherhood there were three main factions. 

The da’wa faction was ideologically conservative and oversees bureaucratic activities and the allocation of resources within the Brotherhood. They are the pragmatic conservatives also known as the main group of the Brotherhood were still an ideologically conservative view, but with a strong emphasis on participation and engagement.

Then, there are reformists who put an emphasis on party pluralism and women’s rights within the platform of the Brotherhood. The reformists within the Brotherhood were involved in movements like Kefaya’s movement as individuals Kefaya group as individuals. The reformers within the Brotherhood were the only political party that participated in day-to-day activities of Tahrir Square during the 2011 Revolution in Egypt. 

Existence Of Groups

This existence of groups led to a great deal of confusion among people, who thought that the Brotherhood was more democratic because of their participation with the Egyptian 2011 Revolution. This led to the support of the Brotherhood among more democratically minded Egyptians and helped the Brotherhood to win.

The network-based approach employed by the Brotherhood’s was also instrumental. In their victory in the parliamentary as well as presidential elections. The Brotherhood made use of vast networks of religious and social they had built over the last three decades. These networks achieved through creating trust in communities, working with people, trust and offering social service. 

This contrasts with secular political parties which only had 10 months to build networks. That Brotherhood’s has built over a time period of several decades. So, it’s not a reason to be surprised that the Brotherhood. Made use of their networks more effectively than secular parties ever did.

Mandatory For Egyptians

The presidential election also made it mandatory for Egyptians to support Brotherhood candidates. Brotherhood as the less harmful of two evils. In the presidential election in 2012, the race was a run-off with Mohamed Morsi. The Brotherhood candidate and Ahmed Shafik, a former premier under Hosni Mubarak, who embodied the previous regime. A lot of Egyptians were dissatisfied with these two choices and were forced to pick the one. That they did not like the most and that proved to be Mohammad Morsi.

The Brotherhood’s victory in the elections in and following Hosni Mubarak’s reign sparked. Controversy on how the Brotherhood had achieved this. These theories include the special characteristic of Islam and with a particular focus. On middle or poor class or the idea that Islamic groups were more organized than secular organizations. 

A lot of these theories have concerns that render their credibility doubtful, however certain theories. Like the emphasis on the middle class and a vague political platform and an ambiguous agreement. With the Mubarak regime, allowed the Brotherhood to prevail in elections. 

It is important to view these elements as a complement to each other. Rather than being distinct factors from each other. Each of them played a crucial role in the success of the Brotherhood. If any of these elements eliminated from the equation. The Brotherhood might not have gotten the same victories in elections that they have.

Supporting Progress Women Transformation Affirmation

Supporting Progress Women Transformation Affirmation

From tiny skirts to smoldering skirts, Americans will recall the 60s in 1960. As an era of social transformation and affirmation of the strengths and rights of women. In true American fashion the movement for women fought and won boldly and firmly in the streets. In the years since the West has turned its focus towards its focus on the Middle East. And issues of gender equality throughout the Arab world.

If compared with the standards of women’s equality that being set in the west as well as the rights. That granted to Muslim women through their religion and government seem incredibly oppressive. In awe of their ongoing achievement in equality for women throughout America. United States, Americans offer self-assuming guidelines for the direction of gender equality throughout their Arab world. It’s easy for Westerners to advocate for these advancements while criticizing Islamic gender discrimination as unjust.

The media is full of stories of unjust and oppressive gender discrimination against transformation women across Iran as well as Afghanistan. They both The Washington Times and The New York Times offer brutal accounts of fundamentalist governments. Who have revoked women’s rights that are based on the predominantly western notion of equality for women. 

Religious Scholars Transformation

The religious scholars argue that in religiously fervent nations based transformation upon Islamic principles. Advancements in gender can only achieved in the context that is provided. By the Qur’an along with the teachings of prophet Muhammad. While scholars can offer the possibility of a reconciliation of gender justice in Qur’anic enactments, however. Their purely semantic arguments are not able to impact on the actual subjugation of women within their Islamic world. 

While the mainstream media provides details about the conditions of women in a particular nation. However, their tone infected with assumptions that speak of Western cultural norms. Both stories provide their own distinct perspective on the gender roles within the Islamic world. But their conversations are so infrequently cross that neither of them can benefit from each other’s experiences.

In the West the majority of people gain their knowledge of other cultural traditions from the media. This is why writers’ choices of words can have a significant impact in shaping readers’ views of the particular people. The titles like Noeleen Heyzer’s Making a Nation Equal, published in the New York Times. Propose that the Islamic nation of Afghanistan governed.

Western Conception Transformation

By a western conception of gender rights in the belief that women and men can be equal. I Xin Li of the Washington Times paints a similar depiction of Iran which is a fundamentalist Islamic nation. Calling for women’s rights integrated into the western democratic system within the Middle East. Although Li offers statistics that support certain freedoms Iranian women.

Enjoy but the overall style of her piece is heavily on an emotional appeal. That appeals to the western belief in equality and democratic values. Li quotes a variety of individuals and leaders from international organizations before concluding with a strong plea. That women in the United States bring gender equality. And democratic rights into the center of their efforts throughout the Middle East.

Islamic experts argue that these demands from western newspapers as well as international organizations. Directly contradict Islamic views and beliefs of both genders. As the associate director at the Harvard Center for the Study of World Religions, Jane I. Smith offers an Islamic view in her essay entitled Women in Islam.

Equity, Equality, and the Search for the Natural Order published in the Journal of the American Academy of Religion. Smith argues that the western need for equality of gender not replicated in Islam. Islamic world. She then goes on to warn westerners against assuming that their beliefs about customs within Islam. As well as those of the Middle East are unjust because they do not fit with western notions of equality. 

Liberation Theologian Transformation

A liberation theologian Asghar Ali Engineer from India shares Smith’s view of the Islamic viewpoint. He claims that it is the human understanding of the Shariah. Instead of Qur’anic doctrines that has led to the oppressive practices outlined by the media across Iran as well as Afghanistan. 

Instead of prescribing an idea of democracy from the west that requires a separation between the state and church. Like the constantly promoted by the mass media the religious scholars claim that it is the secular culture. Which has undermined the importance for women and their rights, as defined by the Qur’an and principles of Muhammad.

The assertions from religious experts strike a strong emotional chord transformation in people of the American public. They claim that the United States found on the notion of an unbreakable distinction between the state and church. 

This principle is an important factor in the way that westerners perceive the government and religion across the globe. And is reflected in popular media coverage about and of the Islamic world. The New York Times editorial, Heyzer is Director of Executive Office of United Nations Development Fund for Women. Outraged by the absence of gender equality in documents that are part of the Afghan constitution. 

Inclusion Of Quality Transformation

He believes that the inclusion of equality for women in the constitution. Will end female transformation violence which is widespread in many parts of Afghanistan. He is requesting that the constitution contain clear language prohibiting any customs and traditional practices that discriminate against women.

Westerners who believe in the separation of state and church to be a universal objective. Readily accept Heyzer’s request as the only reasonable and right conclusion. The United States, such separation was made to ensure complete freedom to practice religion. Heyzer is adamantly indifferent to the Islamic laws that are disregarded and rescinded through this separation.

In the Islamic world Law and religion are inextricably linked. The Qur’an is believed to be holy and regarded as the sole word spoken by God. In the way it was handed down to Muhammad, the prophet. Muhammad. Muslims across the globe look to the Qur’an to guide them in all their earthly activities. In the framework of an Islamic government, the law is as well dictated by religious principles and ideals. Based on the interpretation of Shariah, that is, the eternal pattern that God has ordained for the universe. Muslims adhere to strict rules designed to interpret this divine idea. 

To achieve the ideal world that was intended by its Creator, Muslims must first base their decisions on the Qur’an. For guidance on not just religious practices but also in legal matters as well as social interactions. This interplay between social, legal and religious rules requires. That you examine any problem that arises in the Arab world from the perspective of Islam.

Jane Smith Examines Transformation

Jane Smith examines this Islamic viewpoint in her essay titled Women in Islam. Equity Equality and the Search for Natural Order published in the Journal of the American Academy of Women. Smith approaches the topic of women’s roles in Islam by first trying to shake off her western beliefs regarding equality. She outlines the Islamic view of accepting the distinctions between women and men to be natural and divine. 

According to her study of her study of the Muslim globe, Muslim Transformation men and women recognize. That they are intrinsically different, and that women are less important than men due to their distinct strengths. Both reformist and conservative Muslims from both genders view this belief to be divine and natural. 

She continually reiterates the belief does not be a reason to make women less superior. Or less suitable to different areas. Smith believes that the majority of the subjugating rituals originate from secular social patterns, not religious beliefs. In support of the accepted cultural beliefs of the inherent inferiority of women, Smith address the Islamic view. That men’s power over women frees women from the burden of responsibility and grants the protection of women.

Although Smith willfully tries to set her personal beliefs aside. It’s clear that her intention is to redefine the terms used in Islamic female rights to reflect her personal views on gender equality. As a result, a large portion of her argument is based on semantics. One of the most evident and consistent argument that she uses in the essay is inequity and inequality. 

Genuine Inequities

While she admits that there have been genuine inequities in the relationship between men and women in Islam, she consistently asserts that these acknowledged inequities of condition can be reconciled by equal status. By arguing this way, she is able to be able to reconcile the fact that women and men have equal rights within their distinct domains both outside of the home and in the family. 

This idea is reminiscent of the idea of being distinct but equal when it comes to the struggle of African Americans for equal rights in this country of the United States. A quick look at the background of civil rights in the 20th century America will reveal that, while this notion doesn’t necessarily mean equality, it does leave numerous opportunities for the exploitation of different rights. 

Smith, however, has never made this kind of comparison. Although she is critical of Arab practices that promote control of the political and social lives of women, she puts these practices down to masculine values of the secular instead of religious beliefs. Although secular values influence understanding of the meanings and implications of dogmas and Shariah Islamic acceptance of the inherent gender differences offers a religious solution to the women’s political and social subjugation. women.

The discussion in the academic literature on religious interpretation based on the secular context is elaborated on in the work of Asghar Ali Engineer, in an article titled Islam, Women and Gender Justice” which is included in the book. What Men Owe to Women, men’s voices from various religions in support of his claim that gender equality is not only a matter of reconciliation but is also a fundamental part of the doctrines of Islam.

Subjugating Treatment

He argues that interpretation is the main reason behind the subjugating treatment of women that is perpetuated in Islamic governments. He argues that Scriptural pronouncements are a source of hope for the weaker and disempowered peoples, whereas theological formulations are weapons in the hands of powerful interests. A fervent believer in the principles from Muhammad,

Engineer accepts normative scripture as a divine text that is indestructible and unchangeable. However, he believes that some scriptures are contextual and needs to be evaluated in light of current social circumstances and references in the Qur’anic scriptures to slavery and the need to ignore these in a society which has long-since condemned the concept of indentured servitude. 

While Engineer’s arguments as well as examples permit understanding of Islamic laws and decrees which favor women, these same principles can be employed to defend the interpretations which have inspired brutal practices in fundamentalist countries. In the midst of a time when people in the Islamic world are under pressure from the west to integrate western culture.

It is possible to argue that the present social environment demands a strict abstention from the values of western culture in order to protect Islamic tradition. The custom of wearing the hijab or veil that is worn covering the face of women is a perfect illustration of this. Engineer can quickly emphasize that the veil isn’t commanded by the Qur’an but is generally a secular custom. But for many Muslim women the veil is not the oppressive practices of a fundamentalist system and the simultaneous refusal to accept western culture and acceptance of Muslim tradition.

Engineer’s Utilization Transformation

Engineer’s utilization in the use of Qur’anic verse and the choice of translation further demonstrates the flexibility of his arguments that can used to support or refute his assertion. The quotes from the Qur’an translated to English by Mulani Muhammad Ali heavily rely on the meaning of the words. He quotes a section of verse. That translated into English, reading, the rights of the wives with regards towards their spouses the same as their rights in relation to their wives. 

A different translation from M. A. S. Abdel Haleem translates the identical verse to read wives entitled to rights comparable to their obligations in accordance with what considered as fair, and husbands have a certain degree of rights over them. The two translations offer distinct versions of what the scripture says. Ali’s interpretation clearly gives equal rights to both males and females. 

In contrast, Haleem’s translation gives some rights to women, but it clearly states that women’s rights are subordinate to those for males. If we want to believe that there is some any validity in an interpretation of the Qur’an according to Engineer and Smith, we should consider the authenticity in Haleem’s interpretation. For those seeking the reconciliation of gender equality and justice in Islam the evidence can found in both Engineer and Smith’s writings. Faith and practice, however, always informed by scholarly discussion. People who believe in their faith rely on their faith, not theological evidence.

Theoretical Approach Transformation

The theoretical approach of scholars to the Islamic theology can give an Islamic perspective on the international debate on gender equality within the Arab world. It’s not possible, however, to expand this perspective across all over the Islamic world. As illustrated by Engineer the author, there numerous ways to interpret the Qur’an and different opinions on the way in which its teachings can applied to the law and practice. 

The choice of interpretations that favored by feminist theologians result in an understanding that based on the lens of a narrower scope which more consistently reflected in academic discourse than in the context of religious and cultural practice. For evidence that is concrete of real-life practice, we need to look to the media for information on recent events happening in and around the Islamic world. The evidence, however, often framed in a pathetic appeal to western expectations for a completely different group of people, with no effort to know what they desire.

As tensions between United States and Islamic nations increase, pressures from the media in the west and international organizations like the United Nations to promote equality and justice throughout the region are likely to grow. At this point, it appears that the standard of reference for future engagement with the Muslim world is the democratization. 

Western Intentions

Although the Western intentions for gender equality and democracy for women in Middle East could viewed as altruistic but imposing western values on governments and cultures a violation of the very concept of democracy. In a large portion part of the Muslim world, feminists and democracy entwined with imperialism based on capital that decried in the Qur’an as well as by Muhammad. 

A forceful application of western principles will only reinforce the connection and further aggravate tensions in the Islamic world against western democratic values. Western insisting on the separation between state and church is also a mistake. While Americans boast about this fundamental principle, the adoption of this idea does not guarantee the freedom of religion, which was the initial intent of the US constitution. Instead, it could force nations that are based upon Islamic principles to rescind the Qur’an and require the revocation of religious beliefs.

Outside forces cannot fix the inequalities that exist within any culture. In the case of America, United States did not follow similar guidelines when Britain decided that no person living on the British Isles could enslaved by another. It the United States had to come to its own conclusions and then fight an unpopular and bloody civil war to change internal practices. 

Islamic World Transformation

Also, any change that lasts to the Islamic world will need to implemented within each country on its individual criteria. For a lady who enjoys the rights enjoyed by west, I come to my conclusion with heavy hearts because I also want to see a better future for women from Afghanistan, Iraq and Iran. 

I am aware that I am not able to define what better life means for women like these. It is essential to accept that the cultural ephemerality is constantly changing. Although support available for those who wish to believe in it, however, the direction of any change in culture will determined within the individual.

Discusses Moser And The Christian Apologetics Philosophy Debate

Discusses Moser And The Christian Apologetics Philosophy Debate

In recent times, there is a lot of debate in philosophy of religion about the importance and relevance. Of natural theology can be, particularly when compared to evidence from experience. One major advocate of this skeptical view in regard to theology that is natural is Paul K. Moser. Moser thinks that the natural doctrine could be a viable way to reach theistic theology, but not personal theism. 

This is not a good thing for Moser as Moser believes. That the purpose of Christian apologetics should be to convince people. That there is God, and that God is morally flawless that it is worthy to worship. One major opponent to this idea can found in Tedla G. Woldeyohannes. She adheres to the tradition of believing of natural theology as helpful and beneficial in Christian Apologetics.

Woldeyohannes’ Philosophy Positions

The two approaches, Moser as well as Woldeyohannes’ positions analyzed and contrasted. In this article to establish the significance of each approach’s functions are in Christian Apologetics. Moser’s argument is based largely on the assumption. That natural theological arguments don’t have enough impact to be effective in Christian theology and that experience-based. Arguments are more purposeful in comparison to natural theology and therefore, experiential arguments are more convincing. 

Woldeyohannes his argument, however, will prove that arguments drawn from natural theology. Aren’t solely based on a rational argument that is convincing. But they will also demonstrate how arguments from the natural worldview can actually convince someone. Of personal belief which is exactly the goal Moser is trying to achieve in his work. In the final part of this article after each argument has studied and explained the two arguments will compared. An evaluation will given to the significance each one of them plays in Christian theology of apologetics.

Moser’s Philosophy Argument

As previously discussed, Moser disavows the usefulness of natural theological arguments. Since he believes they cannot lead people to the ultimate truth. That is that there is a morally perfect God deserving of worship. Moser clarifies this foundation to his belief in his statement that my case against natural theology relies. On an understanding of the title God in terms of a personal agent worthy of worship.

In other words, Moser is not content with an assertion of theology. Unless it is able to prove this definition of God that he has offered. It isn’t the only thing Moser must evaluate, however. Woldeyohannes is a shrewd observer in his explanation of for Moser, the relevant evidence for the existence of God. Directly from the experience of God and doesn’t require propositional evidence through arguments.

Based on this There at most two elements of Moser’s argument which must considered. Whether or not experiential evidence is the sole method to come up with. The definition he uses of God or if his argument is the best of arguments that support theistic belief. Before these arguments can considered a fact Moser’s argument has to better understood.

A crucial point to remember is that, rather than critique the current version of Christian natural theology. And apologetics, Moser also offers an alternative approach to apologetics. Instead of using the sole knowledge from nature to convince people of the belief system. Moser believes that theists must use experience-based knowledge as the foundation of their arguments. Based on this view one has to consider what is experiential knowledge? 

Moser Referring Philosophy Phrase

What Moser is referring to by this phrase is basically that arguments for theism. Must be based on empirical experiences, not simply a cognitive exercise. Moser provides two instances of this. One, when one has an encounter with an omnipresent being this experience. Considered to be evidence for the existence of God https://wangslot.com/

Additionally, when someone’s life altered by an encounter with God and others recognize that the experience triggered significant changes in the individual. In their moral character, behavior or in any other way because of their encounter with God The observation provides evidence the existence of God. existence. In other words, the evidence the experience that Moser classifies as theistic proofs could be an actual experience with God or an encounter with another person in which one notices an obvious difference in the other person due to their experiences with God. divine.

It appears that Moser’s theories were born not from a revelation of awe however, it is a result of a profound dislike for natural theology, and a predisposition to the empiricism. With this particular set of circumstances and the only outcomes that could expected are agnosticism, or the development of a fresh approach to Christian Apologetics. 

Complete Change Rationalism Philosophy Empiricism

The new method is radical and is a complete change from rationalism towards empiricism in Christian apologetics. The three arguments Moser claims that he is fighting is the ontological and teleological and cosmological arguments. These are basically based on logic and what Moser refers to as natural knowledge.

Concerning argumentation based on experience and religious experiences, a lot of Christian philosophers do not employ this strategy and method of argumentation altogether. However, some do make use of these kinds of arguments, when they do, they are typically paired with statements that state that even though the arguments based on experience not strong.

But they do have validity and force given the sheer number of them. It would appear that the majority of philosophers who practice Christian apologetics acknowledge the weakness of these arguments. However, Moser is in striking contrast to his fellow philosophers in the sense his belief that arguments that rely on experience should be the only arguments employed within Christian apologetics. 

Then, a glance at the views of other philosophers about this topic could aid in determining whether Moser has come up with the modern-day Copernican Revolution in the field of Apologetics or whether he’s misinterpreted this argument as being more powerful than it actually is in fact.

Moser’s Contemporaries On Moser’s Apologetics

Though only a handful of individuals within the religion and philosophy have condemned Moser’s theories with the same fervor that Woldeyohannes does, far few adhere to Moser’s ideas. This means that even though there aren’t many theists who vehemently reject Moser’s theories but there are few who employ his approach to apologetics. Most adhere to more traditional methods, such as natural theology.8 This includes William Lane Craig, Richard Swinburne along with Douglas Groothuis to name a few.

William Lane Craig is arguably one of the leading apologists of the 21st century. Over the last 30 years or so, he has undoubtedly reformulated on the argument of the kalam cosmic theory and has debated at top universities like Oxford against outstanding atheistic rivals such as Richard Dawkins and Christopher Hitchens. 

Craig has not only presented an extremely convincing and well-known argument in favor of theism based on an argument based on the Kalam Cosmological Argument, but he’s also presented an argument that is convincing for personal theism by using this argument. 

If this is true Moser’s entire work is unsuccessful. If a targeted argument not only for theism but also to support personal theism is created and accepted, then Moser is not correct in stating that evidence-based arguments are the only argument capable of achieving these criteria.

Reasonable Philosophy Faith

In Craig’s most lauded work, Reasonable Faith, he spends a lot of time to a detailed description of his kalam-cosmological argument. After Craig exposes his argument in its entirety and provides a short explanation of the truth that is derived in this discussion. Which is different aside from the presence of God. The fact that Craig believes is derived from his natural theology is that God does not exist but is also a personal. This is demonstrated by Craig himself, when he says the following.

In the end, and perhaps most significantly the fact that such a cause transcends time could be considered as personal. Three arguments can be offered to support this assertion. First the universe does not be explained in a scientific way as there is no evidence beyond it, which means it isn’t accounted for using laws that operate under basic conditions. 

It is only accounted by an agent’s actions and or an individual explanation. Second, the personhood of the cause of the universe is implied by its timelessness and immateriality. Third, this same conclusion philosophy is also implied by the fact that we have in this case the origin of a temporal effect from a timeless cause. On the basis of this conceptual analysis of the conclusion implied by the kalam cosmological argument, we may therefore infer that a personal Creator of the universe exists.

Craig is very clear in this article that he believes from a myriad of legitimate reasons that natural theology has the potential of bringing a person to personal theism. Not only that, but also the kalam theological argument is powerfully apprehensive. Moser’s two concerns with natural theology discussed earlier as being.

Personal Theism

They aren’t compelling purposive enough and they don’t allow for personal theism which is the primary goal of Christian theology of apologetics. If Craig alone is right as many consider him to be the case, then his argument on its own undermines Moser’s beliefs about natural theology. Furthermore, if one considers the totality of all possible outcomes of natural theology and weighs their likelihood of personal theism against Moser’s arguments for personal theism and finds this conclusion more likely to be true in the first group of arguments than with the latter.

Like Craig’s line of arguments, Richard Swinburne presents the Teleological argument that a Creator exists after the argument has presented in its entirety and argued that, in light of the argument, it is evident that this Creator is an individual. Richard Swinburne, also like Craig has been a participant in debates at and published by Oxford which means that his credentials aren’t under examination in any way. 

The goal here is to highlight his arguments for the existence of a personally based God by presenting a natural theology. The book The Existence of God, Swinburne provides a number of arguments to support the doctrine of theistic evolution, including the well-known Teleological argument. 

After he has presented this argument however, he also states that the natural order of the universe isn’t just a sign of a creator as such, but also of the personal God. In this case, Swinburne Philosophy draws two major conclusions. In the first, he draws an association between an organized universe to a creator who committed to human development. 

Universe Philosophy God

He also links the beauty of the universe with a God who is concerned regarding human happiness. These relationships appear to be logical and worthwhile however, to prove the truth of this assertion, a deep analysis of these claims must carried out.

In regard to Swinburne’s conviction that the natural order of the universe requires an intentional Creator who is concerned to help humans flourish, Swinburne has much to say. There are two primary arguments to believe that this kind of Creator must be a result of an orderly universe. In the first place, Swinburne explains the profound possibility that a universe not designed to ensure the survival of humans at all.

And then admits that the only plausible theories for such a universe could be a random or intentional Creator. Finally, he suggests that the second possibility is the more likely one. Once this established, it is simple to Swinburne to suggest that if a creature decided to make a choice to create it is a good thing.

However, creating with the intent of maintaining life is an even more important decision, and making the choice to create a space that life thrives and even develop for humanity’s good is a genuinely beneficial act. Therefore, Swinburne suggests the possibility that a higher being, which might from now on known as God because of the characteristics which have assigned to God created the universe. 

Second Argument Swinburne Philosophy

The second argument Swinburne uses explained in the explanation philosophy of the first defense. Another reason for believing in a godly personal God. Who created all things is because it’s more likely than the alternative. The reason for this is that since this explanation is more likely simple, more straightforward. And effectively describes the rise of humans, it is logical that this God excellent. But also, that he takes care of humanity and is, therefore, private.

For Swinburne’s argument that stems from the purposeful beauty of the universe. He explains that even if the universe tuned for life. It would not need to be pleasing to the eye. Therefore, the beauty that exists anywhere in the universe is not a necessary beauty. It would be an honor when everything even had beauty. However, as Swinburne continues to argue, it’s like the whole Universe is beautiful.

If beauty is not necessary and is more a show of divine power, grace and glory. Then surely the entire aesthetic beauty of the universe is unnecessary. And has no function other than to increase the joy of conscious beings, such as humans. The rebuttal of Swinburne to Moser expected to look similar to the following. The beautiful and orderly nature of the universe, both in all its facets and smallest particulars. All point towards the existence of a God who cares about living beings. This is what makes a person the personal God.

Groothuis’s Defense Of Moserian Apologetic

The final analysis of Groothuis’s defense of Moserian Apologetic is yet another. Instance of natural theology that leads to personal theology. When Groothuis discusses an argument based on ontological logic, he provides an insightful observation. Following his presentation and then he responds to specific objections to the argument. Including the Moser’s argument and that of Richard Dawkins.

Groothuis says in regard to the ontological argument, and the personal god that if God is perfect. Then it is reasonable to think that God is concerned about his creation. And extend his hand to his sinful mortals in a certain way. The argument seems to be based on the reliability of the argument. However, this places all the proof burden on Moser. 

If he wants to offer an authentically rational alternative against the ontological argument. The first step is to present a compelling and convincing reason. To those who believe in the ontology to leave the argument. That has been so beneficial to the past and advocate a different argument instead.